Archive for Nutrition

We want you to Fight Right! What exactly does this mean?

 

Why does HCB2 focus on cancer prevention and use the phrase, let’s “Fight Right”? Two stories led us to the creation of the Fight Right initiative! 

First, several years ago an early morning show began a cancer awareness segment. To highlight the successes of research and treatment for one particular cancer, the guests included cancer survivors – many of them in early remission. So how did they honor and celebrate the survivors and the advances in medicine? They honored the achievements by bringing out a huge cake. Cake was served to honor those who had just completed their treatment. It was hard to watch many of these women, who had lost their hair throughout their courageous journey, served large pieces of cake. Why does this matter? Well, to start, our bodies simply do not need added sugars to live, especially not in the amounts often consumed in the modern American diet.

The second example was over 10 years ago when my first husband Rich Conklin, was heavily challenged with stage four colon cancer at the young age of 42. During the years of his cancer treatment, our children were athletically active in their late high school years. I was also working full time, as was Rich, in addition to his after-work coaching job as a high school football coach. Needless to say, our lives were hectic. As I saw the treatments taking a toll on his body, mind, and spirit, I began to take a close look at the daily noise we mindlessly added to our lives. Well wishers would make passing comments such as “Keep fighting, Rich!” and the cards we received stated, “Keep up the fight”, or “We are fighting with you”. I began to redefine the word “fight” and the images that came to mind. What is the best way to “fight”? All I craved was stillness and peace. We were tired of the “fight”. It had been nine months and the way we were fighting was not working.

The body’s physiological response when “fighting” helps to create an environment where cancer can thrive. Fighting raises adrenaline and cortisol levels, tenses muscles, and can deplete the body of magnesium and other critical nutrients. Consuming a high sugar diet does not help this situation as excessive sugar consumption can create an inflamed, acidic bodily environment where disease, including cancer, can thrive.1-2 Our fight during and after treatment truly seemed counterproductive to recovery. So, is there a better way to fight?

Yes, there is! HCB2 strives to help individuals and communities create both internal and external environments where cancer is challenged to survive. Helping individuals build and maintain a bodily environment that is unable to host the growth of cancer is a part of our work.

It’s no surprise HCB2 discourages the delivery of a plate of cupcakes or cookies to a new survivor in early remission. Isn’t it time to celebrate though? It sure is! Let’s, however, find ways to keep the “Fight Right”. HCB2’s Fight Right initiative educates and encourages folks to consider how they are “doing” life. How and what are we eating? How are we moving? How are we reducing stress? Being mindful about our daily routines can help bring about positive change. The Fight Right initiative includes three focus areas:  Nourish. Move. Breathe.

Nourish 

Real whole foods (and water) help our bodies to function as intended. We strive to decrease toxic burden and reduce inflammation in the body and nutrients found in whole foods have this ability. Unfortunately, sugar-laden and processed foods add to the toxic load and increase inflammation. HCB2’s anti-inflammatory grocery list is a great resource for those wondering what it means to “give our bodies more of what it needs and less of what it does not”.

Instead of cupcakes, we help to educate patients and survivors on our body’s need for healthy fats, clean proteins, minerals, water and the brilliance of greens and vegetables. We provide resources directly to cancer patients such as the Healing Belly Basket. And we can help point the way to a cleaner, lower carb treat that has the savory flavor we all enjoy.

Move

Our bodies are designed to move. Regular movement helps to reduce blood sugar levels, reduce blood pressure, move the lymphatic system (our body’s detoxification system) to eliminate waste and toxins, and bring oxygen into the body, which can reduce inflammation. 

Movement also helps us to build strength, endurance, flexibility and can help with postural alignment and the maintaining of balance. Research also shows that exercise can help to combat some of the side effects of cancer treatment! The positive outcomes associated with movement through cancer treatment includes better sleep, increased energy, decreased levels of depression, increased confidence, and less post-treatment weight gain. Continuing to move throughout cancer treatment provides benefits to the patient and creates a foundation for continued positive outcomes throughout survivorship.

Breathe

Our bodies are designed to rest in appropriate amounts. However, did you know you can rest while you work? Just by focusing on your breath during work or movement can provide several benefits to our bodies. By being present and focused on taking large diaphragmatic breaths while at work can increase an overall sense of well being. Being mindful during your tasks can reduce emotional, mental and physical stress. Chronic stress creates a constant drip of cortisol in our bodies which can increase inflammation and damage arteries. By bringing more oxygen into the body through deep breathing the immune system can be strengthened and lymph (cellular, and other, waste) can be moved out of the body. When you are driving in your car, typing an email, or cooking dinner, consider being mindful of the breath as a way to help reduce the dis-ease which can come from chronic stress.

We must eat, move, and breathe every day to remain alive. The Fight Right initiative focuses on those three activities and educates community members about the benefits of becoming mindful as to our state of being during those actions. We are human beings, not human “doings”. Being aware of how we take in nourishment, take in oxygen, and move through our day is free, simple, and may be the game changer in cancer prevention. Fight Right!

References

  1. Harvard Health. (2017, May). The Sweet Danger of Sugar. Harvard Health Publishing. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/heart-health/the-sweet-danger-of-sugar.
  2. Crawford, Amy. (2019, March 20) Increasing evidence of a strong connection between sugar and cancer.  Medical Xpress. Retrieved from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-03-evidence-strong-sugar-cancer.html. 

Salt! More or less?

Salt! More or less?

Hitting Cancer Below the Belt (HCB2) has considered salt an important component of our healing belly basket since the program’s inception in 2016. Full of minerals and electrolytes, salt helps our muscles move, helps our nerves function, keeps our body fluids balanced, and so much more! We strongly recommend unrefined salt over the highly processed white table salt as it is heavily refined. In contrast, unrefined sea salt, celtic salt and pink salt offer not only sodium and chloride (i.e. salt), but several other electrolytes and minerals, including trace amounts of magnesium that is critical to optimal bodily function.

The recommendation to smartly add salt, and not less, may seem contradictory to conventional dietary guidelines, but we are not alone in this recommendation. Researchers like Dr. James DiNicolantonio of Saint Luke’s Mid America Heart Institute, suggests in his book, The Salt Fix, that quality salt intake is essential to the management and prevention of disease, including heart disease!

The body’s need for salt is likely to vary from person to person as well as day to day. You may need more or less depending on certain health conditions, level of physical activity, and salt intake from foods. For instance, experiencing chronic stress or participating in a moderate/intense exercise program can create a need for additional unrefined salt in your diet. Listen to your body and don’t hesitate to do the research for yourself.

We are not encouraging readers to add salt with reckless abandon, especially in its inferior form as table salt. We strongly suggest refraining from consuming heavily processed fast and packaged foods that are often loaded with refined salt and include other low-quality additives such as refined sugars. HCB2 advocates for the consumption of real, whole foods including healthy fats, clean fruits and vegetables, clean proteins, along with unrefined salt.

Feel free to check out the HCB2 Fight Right Anti-Inflammatory Grocery List for more information on eating in ways that can help reduce the burden on our bodies. You will find some suggestions for unrefined salt included on the list. So push away that table salt shaker and discover other ways to give your meal a salty sprinkle. Your body will thank you!

Mind Your Minerals: The Importance of Magnesium

What is Magnesium and what does it do?

Some call magnesium the “mineral of movement” – which is appropriate as HCB2 talks a lot about bowel movements throughout our work!  Magnesium in appropriate amounts can certainly help to get you regular, but did you know that it is a very important nutrient that serves at least 300 functions throughout the body?

In fact, this mineral acts alongside other electrolytes to help create energy and control fluid in the body, as well as controlling enzyme, cell, nerve, muscle and DNA/RNA function.1 The presence of adequate levels of magnesium has also been associated with reduced risk of high blood pressure, diabetes, PMS and other health issues, and it also can provider pain relief.2

What’s cancer got to do with it?

In regards to cancer, magnesium intake has been associated with a reduced risk of this disease as well.3-9 Looking specifically at colorectal cancer, one study found an estimated 40% reduction in colorectal cancer among women with higher intake of magnesium.3-4 A meta-analysis study also found positive benefit from higher intakes of magnesium and colorectal cancer risk, and a 2015 study of postmenopausal women found that an intake of 400 mg of magnesium helped to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer.5, 7 Other studies have found magnesium to play a role in pancreatic cancer risk reduction.  Additionally, it’s been shown to exhibit anti-cancer effects on human gastric cancer cells in vitro.8-9

How can I consume more magnesium?

Great question! Well, eating more nutrient-dense, real food is a start! Raw avocado, sprouted pumpkin seeds, salmon, probiotic-rich yogurt (watch the sugar) and gently cooked spinach are just some of the foods that contain magnesium.1 You may need to consider a supplement (but remember that not all are created equal) and/or possibly apply magnesium (in the form of magnesium chloride oil or flakes) topically through skin. Bathing is a stress relieving way to bring magnesium into the body. Magnesium sulfate (also called Epsom salts) can be tossed into a warm tub or sprinkled into a foot soak.

Of course, there are some side effects of taking too much magnesium, especially all at once. HCB2 wants you to be able to go to the bathroom more regularly, but not like this! For those with health challenges, too much magnesium or perhaps the certain forms of magnesium, may also present some challenges. So, as always, we encourage you to do the research yourself and seek expertise on how this and other dietary interventions may help you.

#eatclean #getscreened #cancerhatesthat

References

1. National Institute of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. (2018). Magnesium: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. Retrieved July 13, 2018 from https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/.

2. Oregon State University. Magnesium. Retrieved July 13, 2018 from   https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/minerals/magnesium.

3. Larsson SC, Leif B, and Wolk A. (2005). Magnesium Intake in Relation to Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Women. JAMA, 293(1). doi:10.1001/jama.293.1.86.

4. Larsson SC and Wolk A. (2005). Magnesium Intake, Drinking Water, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer—Reply. JAMA, 293(21). doi:10.1001/jama.293.21.2599-b.

5. Ko HJ, Youn CH, Kim HM, Cho YJ, et al. (2014). Dietary magnesium intake and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Nutrition and Cancer, 66(6). doi: 10.1080/01635581.2014.922203.

6.  Chen GC, Pang Z and Liu QF. (2012). Magnesium intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66(11). doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.135.

7. Gorczyca AM, He K, Xun P, Margolis KL et al. (2015). Association between magnesium intake and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women. Cancer Causes and Control, 26(12). doi: 10.1007/s10552-015-0669-2.

8. Dibaba D, Xun P, Yokota K, White E et al. (2015). Magnesium intake and incidence of pancreatic cancer: the VITamins and Lifestyle study. British Journal of Cancer, 113(11). doi: 10.1038/bjc.2015.382.

9. Bo LY, Li TJ, and Zhao XH. (2018). Copper or Magnesium Supplementation Endows the Peptic Hydrolysate from Bovine Lactoferrin with Enhanced Activity to Human Gastric Cancer AGS Cells. Biological Trace Element Research. doi: 10.1007/s12011-018-1468-x.

Helping you to Fight Right: HCB2’s Anti-Inflammatory Grocery List

Last year, HCB2 partnered with Dr. Marlisa Hurt to create an anti-inflammatory grocery list. As many of you know, we offer free Healing Belly Baskets (make your request here) to cancer patients and survivors, but we realized that people were looking for more information and support beyond this service.

The HCB2 grocery list focuses on consuming quality fats, clean proteins, veggies, and low-glycemic fresh fruits. We also highlight the importance of hydration and identify foods which support our gut microbiome – the “good guy” bacteria that plays a role in digestion and helps to synthesize nutrients.

The anti-inflammatory grocery list encourages folks to limit or avoid certain foods and food-like substances that have been linked to less than optimal health outcomes. This includes the avoidance of added and excess sugars in the diet, as well as avoiding all forms of artificial sugars. For instance, if you prefer to add something sweet to your food or drink, we recommend liquid stevia or luo han guo (also known as monk fruit).

You might notice that grains and legumes are missing from the HCB2 grocery list. Too often, many people are consuming large amounts of these over processed foods. Most grains are highly glycemic and very difficult to digest especially in individuals where their gut health may be compromised.

Caffeine and alcohol are also off the list. It’s good to know that these chemicals are not necessary for proper bodily function though many of us may feel the need for that coffee jolt in the morning. For those dealing with health issues, caffeine and alcohol can contribute to the burden placed on the body each day especially if our nutritional needs are not being met.

HCB2 loves quality fat! Previously, we wrote about the importance of fat. Saturated fats are an important nutrient to our cell structure, and fats have been shown in the research to support cardiovascular health, good (HDL) cholesterol, and weight management. Additionally, quality fats have be shown to be protective against cancer and some of the side effects of cancer treatment.

At first glance, the HCB2 anti-inflammatory grocery list may seem a bit restrictive. With the help of Dr. Hurt and current research, we selected those nutrients which help to create a bodily environment where cancer is challenged to survive. It’s time to get creative because there are so many foods one can incorporate into each meal. Remove the stress about daily food choices by opening your mind to new ideas. For example, crack an egg into a pan of coconut oil, add some organic spinach, and unrefined sea salt (not table salt) to taste. Remove from pan and plate along side 1/2 avocado. The fat and protein will stay with you for hours so you will not be crashing prior to lunch, plus your brain, muscles, and cells will love it!

To sum up with some easy to remember tips! Fight Right with real food. Enjoy all the colors of the rainbow represented in a wide array of vegetables. Quality fats are not your enemy, and a hydrated body can prevent many problems. We hope you check out the HCB2 anti-inflammatory grocery list and select a few new items to place in your cart next time you visit the grocery store!

Fight Right Nutrition: Bone Broth

Our Healing Belly Baskets for cancer patients and survivors includes nutrient dense foods that may help to reduce inflammation in the body. These baskets include bone broth, which is full of proteins and minerals that support gut health and overall body function. We all require certain nutrients to thrive and cancer patients and survivors are no exception to this rule! An estimated 1/3 of cancer deaths are caused by cachexia or muscle and tissue wasting (NCI). Easy to digest proteins, like those in bone broth, may help to shut down this wasting in cancer patients!

Bone broth is made from the bones of animals (e.g. cows, chickens, fish) and is typically cooked over low heat for several hours to extract the nutrients from the bones.  It can be bought online, in local stores and some restaurants, but it is also relatively inexpensive and easy to make at home. There are many free recipes available online and broth can be flavored in many ways to accommodate personal preferences.

One easy way to make bone broth is to take a whole chicken, seasoned with unrefined sea salt, and cook it in a crockpot for a few hours on high. When finished, debone the chicken and save the meat for lunch, dinner or other uses! Add the bones back to the liquid in the crockpot, cover bones with water, and add a couple of tablespoons of raw apple cider vinegar (helps to pull the minerals and other nutrients from the bones). Let it simmer on low for about 24 hours. Once cooled, remove bones, strain the broth, go ahead and sip on it, or add to storage containers for later use.

We personally like to make small glass mason jars to store our bone broth in the freezer, so we can take out and drink or add to food when needed. You can also add broth to ice cube trays, freeze, pop out and store in containers in the freezer for later use as well! Some folks also like to use their Instant Pots (pressure cookers) to make bone broth in a shorter amount of time. Check out the recipe below to help get you started: http://ohlardy.com/chicken-bone-broth/.

Want more options for nutrient dense, anti-inflammatory foods? We developed our Fight Right Anti-Inflammatory grocery list for cancer patients, survivors and the general community. Download it here.

Coconut Oil: What’s Up with Fat?

In June, we shared some thoughts and additional studies on the coconut oil and saturated fat controversy that recently took the Internet by storm. Several experts in the field have also taken the time to share their perspectives on the risks associated with substituting saturated fats like coconut oil for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in our diets, particularly omega-6 PUFAs in highly refined “vegetable oils” such as canola and soy oil, etc. (see Hyman, Davis, and Perlmutter). These experts and others have also identified issues with the methodology underlying the guidelines created by the American Heart Association (AHA) to consume less saturated fat (see also Bastian and Bastian).

In general, HCB2 is not opposed to the inclusion of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (PUFAs) as part of a diet based primarily on real, whole, and anti-inflammatory foods. These fats are essential to the many processes the body undertakes everyday to keep us well and functioning.1 We also agree with the AHA and others that replacing overall dietary fat intake with additional carbohydrates fails to result in reduced LDL cholesterol levels and also fails to support overall health and wellbeing in general.2 In addition, we agree that trans fats, which are required to be out of the food supply by summer 2018, should also be avoided.3

HCB2 General Dietary Guidelines on Coconut Oil and Other Saturated Fats

We differ on the advice offered by AHA in several ways:

1) HCB2 encourages that people continue to smartly consume quality saturated fats (e.g. coconut, virgin coconut oil, butter/ghee, etc.) because these fats are shown to have positive health effects on HDL (“good” cholesterol), gut integrity and cancer, patient quality of life, and more.4, 8-15, 25

  • Studies have found virgin coconut oil increases HDL (“good”) cholesterol and helps to decrease body mass and waist circumference as well as offer other beneficial effects on cholesterol levels.8-9
  • Several studies, including at least 2 meta-analysis studies, found that saturated fat does not appear to be associated with cardiovascular disease events nor all-cause mortality.10-13
  • Virgin coconut oil has been shown to improve quality of life and reduce chemotherapy side effects for breast cancer patients.14
  • In at least one animal study, researchers found that diets high in saturated fats (including coconut oil) reduced inflammation, tumor burden and colon cancer cell proliferation. It also increased colon cancer cell apoptosis. These results may be due to increased expression of a particular gene (Muc2) that has been shown to strengthen the integrity of the intestinal wall.15
  • Loss of this same gene expression (Muc2), which was shown to have increased expression with a saturated fat diet, has also been connected to colon cancer in humans, and its loss may also be a predictor of poor colon cancer disease outcomes in addition to cancer reoccurrence.16-17

salmon2) We encourage that saturated fats be consumed with other quality foods, including lower-glycemic carbohydrate sources (e.g. veggies and fruits). Refined sugars and other highly processed carbohydrates should generally be avoided as they are often lacking in quality nutrients and can add to the inflammatory burden placed on the body.4, 13, 23-24

  • One additional analysis examining dietary recommendations found there to be little or weak evidence linking saturated fats to coronary artery disease and other conditions. Instead, there is evidence linking sugars and the oxidation/over-heating of PUFAs (including possibly to some extent the small   amounts of PUFAs found in foods consisting primarily of saturated fats) to bodily inflammation and disease such as heart disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes and more.13
  • Another recent study found that it is added sugars in highly processed foods, which may also contain some saturated fats, that increase coronary heart disease (CHD) and other conditions. The authors strongly advocate for diets based primarily on whole, real foods.23

Time for an Oil Change: Avoid Heavily Refined and Inflammatory Vegetable Oils

olive oil3) We strongly encourage that people avoid cooking with unsaturated fats (PUFAs) as they can become oxidized during the cooking process and therefore can contribute to bodily inflammation. We also do not advocate for the consumption of “vegetable” oils (e.g. canola, corn, soy, sunflower, safflower, etc.) overall given evidence that these oils are already oxidized and inflammatory before they are heated due to how they are processed and stored.5-6, 13

4) There is also concern that regular intake of “vegetable” oils high in omega-6 PUFAs affects the omega-6 to omega-3 fat ratio in the body, which may contribute to various inflammatory health conditions, including obesity, heart disease, cancer and diabetes.7, 12, 18-22, 25-27

  • Several studies link the consumption of PUFAs, particularly those higher in  omega-6 fatty acids in comparison to omega-3 fatty acids, to increased risk of breast and colorectal cancers.18-20, 26
  • At least one systematic review shows no reduced risk of cardiovascular events and related-mortality by substituting PUFAs, particularly omega-6 PUFAs, in place of saturated fats.21 Another more recent study examining outcomes from randomized control trials also comes to the conclusion that replacement of saturated fats with omega-6 PUFAs is unlikely to reduce cardiovascular-related events  and all cause mortality.22

HCB2 “Bottom” Line:

Focus on consuming more real, whole, and anti-inflammatory foods, which may naturally contain a spectrum of fatty acids, including saturated, PUFA (with particular emphasis on omega-3 fatty acids) and MUFA fats.

5) In regard to intake of unsaturated fats (PUFAs) overall, we encourage that people consume them from wild caught fish, raw whole avocado, and raw and sprouted nuts and seeds instead of “vegetable” oils. We also advocate for the consumption of monounsaturated fats (MUFAs) from olives and unheated virgin olive oil as well as avocados and some raw and sprouted nuts. 

Please see our Fight Right Anti-Inflammatory Grocery List for more information and suggestions.

References

  1. University of Maryland Medical Center (UMM). (2015). Omega-6 fatty acids. Retrieved June 23, 2017 from http://www.umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/omega6-fatty-acids.
  2. Sacks F., Lichtenstein A., Wu J., Appel L. et al. (2017). Dietary fats and cardiovascular disease: a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 135(25). http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2017/06/15/CIR.0000000000000510.
  3. FDA. (2015). Final Determination Regarding Partially Hydrogenated Oils (Removing TransFat).  Retrieved June 23, 2017 from https://www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients/ucm449162.htm.
  4. Hyman, Mark MD. 2016. Is Coconut Oil Bad for Your Cholesterol? Retrieved June 23, 2017 from http://drhyman.com/blog/2016/04/06/is-coconut-oil-bad-for-your-cholesterol/.
  5. Halvorsen B. & Blomhoff R. (2011). Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements. Food Nutr Res, 55. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3118035/.
  6. Choe E. & Min D. (2016). Mechanisms and Factors for Edible Oil Oxidation. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 5: 169–186. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2006.00009.x/abstract.
  7. Patterson E., Wall R., Fitzgerald GF, Ross RP et al. (2012). Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. J Nut Metab  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3335257/#!po=30.1724.
  8. Cardoso DA, Moreira A, deOliveira GMM, Luiz RR et al. (2015). A coconut extra virgin oil-rich diet increases HDL cholesterol and decreases waist circumference and body mass in coronary artery disease patients Nutrición Hospitalaria, 32(5): 2144-2152. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26545671.
  9. Lekshmi D, Nazeem P, Narayanankutty A, Manalil J et al. (2016). In Silico and Wet Lab Studies Reveal the Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of Lauric Acid a Medium Chain Fat of Coconut Oil. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 71(4): 410-415. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27679437.
  10. de Souza R, Mente A, Maroleanu A, Cozma A et al. (2015). Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ. http://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h3978.
  11. Siri-Tarino P, Sun Q, Hu F & Krauss, R (2010). Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91: 535-46. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20071648.
  12. DiNicolantonio, J (2014). The cardiometabolic consequences of replacing saturated fats with carbohydrates or [omega]-6 polyunsaturated fats. Do the dietary guidelines have it wrong? Open Heart, 1(1). http://openheart.bmj.com/content/1/1/e000032.
  13. Lawrence, G. (2013). Dietary Fats and Health: Dietary Recommendations in the Context of Scientific Evidence. Advances in Nutrition, 4: 294-302. http://advances.nutrition.org/content/4/3/294.full.
  14. Law K, Azman N, Omar E, Musa M et al. (2014). The effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) as supplementation on quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients. Lipids in Health and Disease, 13:139. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25163649.
  15. Enos RT, Velázquez KT, McClellan JL, Cranford TL et al. (2016). High-fat diets rich in saturated fat protect against azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon cancer. American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 310(11). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27033117.
  16. Mizoshita T, Tsukamoto T, Inada KI, Hirano N et al. (2007). Loss of MUC2 expression correlates with progression along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence pathway as well as de novo carcinogenesis in the colon. Histology and Histopathology, 22(3):251-60. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17163399.
  17. Elzagheid A,  Emaetig F,  Buhmeida A,  Laato M et al. (2013). Loss of MUC2 expression predicts disease recurrence and poor outcome in colorectal carcinoma. Tumor Biology, 34(2): 621-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23179399.
  18. Murff HJ, Shu XO, Li H, Dai Q et al. (2009). A prospective study of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 18(8). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19661088.
  19. Murff HJ, Shu XO, Li H, Yang G et al. (2011). Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk in Chinese women: a prospective cohort study. Int J Cancer, 128(6): 1434-41. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20878979.
  20. Reddy, BS. (2002). Types and amount of dietary fat and colon cancer risk: Prevention by omega-3 fatty acid-rich diets. Environ Health Prev Med, 7(3): 95-102. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2723490/.
  21. Schwingshackl, L & Hoffmann, G. (2014). Dietary fatty acids in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression. BMJ Open, 4(4). http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/4/4/e004487.long.
  22. Hamley, S. (2017). The effect of replacing saturated fat with mostly n-6 polyunsaturated fat on coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Nutrition Journal, 16(30). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5437600/.
  23. DiNicolantonio, JJ, Lucan, SC and O’Keefe, JH. (2016). The Evidence for Saturated Fat and for Sugar Related to Coronary Heart Disease Prog Cardiovasc Disease, 58(5). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4856550/.
  24. Volk, BM, Kunces LJ, Freidenreich, DJ, Kupchak BR et al. (2014). Effects of Step-Wise Increases in Dietary Carbohydrate on Circulating Saturated Fatty Acids and Palmitoleic Acid in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome. PLoS One, 9(11). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4240601/.
  25. DiNicolantonio JJ, Harcombe Z, and O’Keefe JH. (2016). Problems with the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: An Alternative. Missouri Medicine, 113(2). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/302873650_Problems_with_the_2015_Dietary_Guidelines_for_Americans_An_Alternative.
  26. Simopoulos, AP. (2008). The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp Biol Med, 233(6). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18408140.
  27. Simopoulos, AP. (2016). An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity. Nutrients, 8(3). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4808858/.